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SPEC 41 /6-18    Theobroma cacao

 Baker, R.E.D., Cope, F.W., Holliday, P.C., Bartley, B.G. & Taylor, D.J. (1953)
The Anglo-Colombian cacao collecting expedition. Report of Cacao Research, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad 9: pp. 8-29.

Derivation: SPECimen.
Collected by Various.
Location: Colombia.

Notes:  Baker et al., 1953 [BAK53A] The Anglo-Colombian Expedition collected material from various places in Colombia ( Amazonas & Vaupes) in 1952 and involved many different collectors. The material was sent onto Trinidad. The name SPEC was given to everything that was collected including Theobroma species other then T. cacao and Herranias.

Bartley, 1983a [BAR83A]. This material is divided into two classes:

1) Collections from the Amazon - up to SPEC 54,

2) Collections from other populations, usually cultivated and of Criollo or Trinitario descent.

Synonyms: COL 41 /6-18 [SPE], M SPEC 41 /6-18


Location: R. Guaviare, Vaupes, Colombia
Date: 7 November 1952
Coordinates: 67.50 W, 4.05 S
Material collected: Seed
Notes: Amanaven, at confluence of R. Guaviare and Orinoco
Expedition Code: 52CO
   Baker, R.E.D. et al., 1953
   Trinidad - U.W.I., 1952
   Cope, F.W., 1953


SPEC 41  x Unknown


 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Amelonado' Population


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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1325     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: SPEC 41/6-18
   - Year of Accession: 2002
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21987
   - Local Name: SPEC-41/6-18
   - Year of Accession: 2006
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC41/6-18
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 41/6-18


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 38.6 (pods per kg dried beans)


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 36.0
Total Wet Weight: 39.2 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.72 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.1 mm


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.80 %


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 129.0 mm
Breadth: 75.0 mm
Colour: slight anthocyanin
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa


 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1325
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 3.00 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.06 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 0.64 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 65.81 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 5.33 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 6
Leaf Area: 290.00 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 2.11 g
Specific Leaf Area: 139.40 cm2 g-1


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: intense anthocyanin


 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 138 mm
Length: 273.0 mm
Width: 92.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 3.00
Basal Angle: 142.2 °
Apical Angle: 82.3 °
Petiole Length: 15 mm
Pulvinus Length: 13 mm


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.15 mm
Ligule Width: 2.06 mm
Ovule Number: 43
Style Length: 2.07 mm
Pedicel Colour: red

Baker, R.E.D., Cope, F.W., Holliday, P.C., Bartley, B.G. & Taylor, D.J. (1953) The Anglo-Colombian cacao collecting expedition. Report of Cacao Research, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad 9: pp. 8-29.
Trinidad - U.W.I. (1952) Cocoa Collecting Expedition Colombia 1952. Record of material received. Unpublished Notebook, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
Cope, F.W. (1953) An interim report on the Anglo-Colombian cocoa-collecting expedition. In: Report of the 1953 Cocoa Conference, London. Cocoa, Chocolate & Confectionery Alliance, London, U.K. pp. 57-63.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L). PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.