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MO 9    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: river MOrona.
Collected by Pound.
Location: R. Morona, Peru.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Fruit - Short, oval, warty, some types with red tint.

Notes:  Collected in 1937.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods may have been collected from one tree with no Witches Broom infection.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. It is likely that accessions recorded with high numbers (>100?) are probably MOQ accessions since Pound, 1943b [POU43B] states that 80 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Synonyms: MORONA 9

Location: Rio Morona, Loreto, Peru
Coordinates: 76.80 W, 4.80 S
   Marita, J. M. et al., 2001


 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJEB28591   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
Library Source: Genomic
Run: SRR7774291   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629533
BioSample: SAMN09934496
SampleName: MO_9
SampleSource: Trinidad, Tree_ID: 18370

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1691     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: MO 9
   - Year of Accession: 2011
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 538
   - Local Name: MO 9
   - Year of Accession: 1981
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: MO-9
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22234
   - Local Name: MO-9
   - Year of Accession: 2015
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: MO 9
   - Year of Accession: 1977
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: MO9
   - Year of Accession: 1975
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: MO 9
List received in 1993   Reference
• Local Name: MO 9
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: MO 9

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14.69 % Infection (Pod).
Note: percentage of infected pods. Rank calculated using Newman-Keuls test at 5% = EF
 Sounigo, O. et al., 1995
Intermediate, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and 3mm stab inoculated
 Iwaro, A.D. et al., 1998
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. capsici (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and 3mm stab inoculated
 Iwaro, A.D. et al., 1998

 K. F. N’Guessan et al., 2003

Pod Index: 26.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
Yield: 3157 kg ha-1 yr-1

Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 40.0
Total Wet Weight: 52.8 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.93 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.0 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.1 mm

Testa: 7.30 %
Butterfat Content: 54.16 %
Testa: 7.00 %

Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 162.0 mm
Breadth: 83.0 mm
Colour: slight anthocyanin
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa

Accession: RUQ 1691
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 6.74 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.12 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.76 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 58.72 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.85 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 305.70 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 2.06 g
Specific Leaf Area: 152.30 cm2 g-1

Colour: slight anthocyanin

Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 7.49 mm
Ligule Width: 2.54 mm
Ovule Number: 39
Style Length: 2.17 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Marita, J. M., Nienhuis, J., Pires, J. L. & Aitken, W. M. (2001) Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Theobroma cacao with Emphasis on Witches’ Broom Disease Resistance. Crop Sci. 41:1305–1316.
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Soloman Islands - S.I. Plantns (1993) Inventory of Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd. Unpublished report, Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd, Soloman Islands, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
Sounigo, O., N'Goran, J., Coulibaly, N., Clement, D. & Lachenaud, P. (1995) Evaluation de clones de cacaoyers pour la productivite, la resistance aux mirides et la resistance a la pourriture des cabosses. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yammoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire, 1993. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 375-381.
Clement, D. & Sounigo, O. (1992) Ivory Coast Database. D. Clement & O. Sounigo, IRCC, Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Iwaro, A.D., Sreenivasan, T.N. & Umaharan, P. (1998) Cacao resistance to Phytophthora: Effect of pathogen species, inoculation depths and pod maturity. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104: pp.11-15
K. F. N’Guessan, A. B. Eskes & Ph. Lachenaud (2003) Etude de la Resistance du Cacaoyer aux Mirides : Classification des Grands Groupes de Cacaoyers en Fonction de Leur Niveau de Resistance ou Sensibilite. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.