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PA 67 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, Peru.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

Synonyms: PARINARI 67 [PER]

'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari III'   Reference


 Jaime A Osorio-Guarín et al., 2020
BioProject: PRJNA734904   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Library Source: Genomic
Run: SRR14743840   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX11078282
BioSample: SAMN19549194
SampleName: PA67
SampleSource: AGROSAVIA, Colombia

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 590     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 67 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1995
• Accession: RUQ 590B     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 67 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1995
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 1263
   - Local Name: PA 67/7
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA-67/T7
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21844
   - Local Name: PA-67 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2002
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA 67
   - Year of Accession: 1970
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: PA 67 [PER]
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 67 [PER]

Moderate Resistance
Note: Artificial reaction to frosty pod.
 Wilbert Phillips et al., 2009
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998

Pod Index: 25.3 (pods per kg dried beans)

Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 37.0
Total Wet Weight: 55.5 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.07 g
Cotyledon Length: 23.0 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.0 mm

Testa: 5.70 %
Butterfat Content: 55.60 %
Testa: 6.70 %

Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: slight
Length: 162.0 mm
Breadth: 76.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa

Accession: RUQ 590
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 6.81 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.16 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.94 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 42.55 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.52 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 250.80 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.61 g
Specific Leaf Area: 161.20 cm2 g-1

Colour: slight anthocyanin

Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.25 mm
Ligule Width: 2.59 mm
Ovule Number: 45
Style Length: 2.11 mm
Pedicel Colour: red

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L). PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Jaime A Osorio-Guarín, Jhon A Berdugo-Cely, Roberto A Coronado-Silva, Eliana Baez, Yeirme Jaimes, Roxana Yockteng (2020) Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Candidate Genes Associated with Productivity and Disease Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 1713–1725
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
Wilbert Phillips, José Castillo, Adriana Arciniegas, Allan Mata, Aldo Sánchez, Mariela Leandro, Carlos Astorga, Juan Motamayor, Bill Guyton, Ed Seguine & Ray Schnell (2009) Overcoming the Main Limiting Factors of Cacao Production in Central America through the use of Improved Clones Developed at CATIE. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Cocoa Research Conference, Bali, Indonesia (November 2009). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.