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PA 137 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, Peru.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

Synonyms: G VI 320, PARINARI 137 [PER]

'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari I'   Reference


 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJEB28591   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
Library Source: Genomic
Run: SRR7774234   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629590
BioSample: SAMN09934518
SampleName: PA_137
SampleSource: Trinidad, Tree_ID: Tc15958

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1081     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 137 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2000
• Accession: RUQ 36     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 137 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 547
   - Local Name: PA 137
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA-137
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21864
   - Local Name: PA-137 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2004
• Accession: 22081
   - Local Name: PA-137 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2007
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA137
   - Year of Accession: 1975
List received in 1997   Reference
• Accession: 320
   - Local Name: PA 137 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: Pa 137
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: PA 137 [PER]
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: PA 137 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 137 [PER]
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668506     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 137 [PER]
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA 137
   - Year of Accession: 1992

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Cross: PA 137 [PER] x AML [MAL] 
16.00 % Infection (Pod).
Note: percentage of infected pods. Rank calculated using Newman-Keuls test at 5% = AB
 Jagoret, P. et al., 1995
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1987

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Seed Index: 112.3 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 30.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
Seed Index: 89.2 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 28.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
Pod Index: 28.1 (pods per kg dried beans)

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Number: 36.2
Dry Weight: 0.89 g
Number: 30.9
Total Dry Weight: 34.6 g
Dry Weight: 1.12 g
Note: 54 plants sampled
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 33.0
Total Wet Weight: 49.8 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.08 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.1 mm

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Butterfat Content: 57.00 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 59.41 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 54.77 %
Note: 8 plants sampled
Testa: 7.80 %
Butterfat Content: 55.50 %
Testa: 5.10 %

Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: slight
Length: 143.0 mm
Breadth: 86.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: soft
Note: Hardness <= 1.6 Mpa
Rugosity: moderate

Accession: RUQ 1081/RUQ 36
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.90 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.09 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.30 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 54.98 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.70 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 6
Leaf Area: 251.70 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.56 g
Specific Leaf Area: 161.90 cm2 g-1

Colour: moderate anthocyanin

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Self Compatibility: self incompatible
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.98 mm
Ligule Width: 2.45 mm
Ovule Number: 42
Style Length: 2.35 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
Self Compatibility: self incompatible

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L). PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
India - Kerala (1997) List of survivng clones from all the introductions. R.V. Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, India. Personal Communication.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Philippe Bastide. (2012) Les clones suivis au Vanuatu (unpublished list of accessions). Personal communication, February 2012.
Jagoret, P., Bastide, Ph., Pilecki, A., Besacier, C. & Eskes, A.B. (1995) Performance et resistance a la pourriture brune d'hybrides de cacaoyer au Vanuatu (Pacifique Sud). In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yammoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire, 1993. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 425-431.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1987) ICGT Germplasm at Marper Farm showing freedom from cushion Brooms and vegetative brooms. Unpublished report, CRU, Trinidad and Tobago.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU). In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.
Yamada, M.M., Bartley, B.G.D., Lopes, U.V. & Pinto, L.R.M. (1996) Heranca do fator compatibilidade em Theobroma cacao L. II. Relacoes fenotipicas em genotipos adicionais grupo Parinari (PA). Agrotropica 8 (2): 51-52.