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SCA 5    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Collected by Pound.
Location: Rio Ucayali, Peru.

Notes:  Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 22 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Fausto Coral said that SCA stands for Sabino Contamana. Bartley considers that it is likely that the material comes from the town known to Pound as Contamana (on the R. Ucayali) since these progenies are very similar to P 31 [POU] from this area. Miguel Aspiazu (who accompanied Pound in Ecuador) said SCA came from Sabino and this may have been misinterpreted as SCAVINA.

UK - CABI Bioscience, 1998 [CAB98A] During surveys of Theobroma and Herrania spp. along the Amazon and Ucayali rivers (Pucallpa-Iquitos) in Octobet 1998, the local guide provided some detailed information on the history of the region. It seems the origin of the Scavinas is near to Iquitos around the Nanay river, from a Hacienda owned by the ESCAVINO family. The farm goes back to the pre-1930's but most of it has now been destroyed as the river Nanay has changed its course. This story, and the corruption of the name, was confirmed by a respected Peruvian agronomist, Reynaldo Crespo, who worked in the region 40 years ago.

Synonyms: SCAVINA 5

'Contamana' Population
Subgroup: 'Scavina'   Reference


 Xavier Argout et al., 2023
BioProject: PRJNA880462   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Library Source: Genomic
Run: SRR21562147   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX17564432
BioSample: SAMN30841517
SampleName: SCA_5
 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJEB28591   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
Library Source: Genomic
Run: SRR7774199   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629625
BioSample: SAMN09934543
SampleName: SCA_5
SampleSource: gDNA Miami, Tree_ID: Tc00884

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List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 998
   - Local Name: SCA 5
• Accession: 998
   - Local Name: SCA 5
• Accession: 998
   - Local Name: SCA 5
List received in 1997   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 5
   - Year of Accession: 1997
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SCA-5
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 5
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 5

Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977

Pod Index: 40.3 (pods per kg dried beans)

Size: small
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 36.0
Total Wet Weight: 32.3 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.69 g
Cotyledon Length: 17.7 mm
Cotyledon Width: 9.3 mm

Testa: 6.20 %
Butterfat Content: 52.40 %
Testa: 7.00 %

Size: medium
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 163.0 mm
Breadth: 60.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa

Tissue: bean
Mean Cadmium Content: 2.08 %
Accumulation: high

Colour: slight anthocyanin

Distance from Base to Widest Part: 138 mm
Length: 259.0 mm
Width: 101.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.60
Basal Angle: 118.9 °
Apical Angle: 77.5 °
Petiole Length: 18 mm
Pulvinus Length: 12 mm

Self Compatibility: self incompatible
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.31 mm
Ligule Width: 2.68 mm
Ovule Number: 43
Style Length: 2.41 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L). PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Xavier Argout, Gaetan Droc, Olivier Fouet, Mathieu Rouard, Karine Labadie, Bénédicte Rhoné, Gaston Rey Loor & Claire Lanaud (2023) Pangenomic exploration of Theobroma cacao: New Insights into Gene Content Diversity and Selection During Domestication. bioRxiv preprint
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Brazil - Almirante Cacao (1997) Cocoa Germplasm Importation Lists 1994 - 1997. Unpublished list supplied by Martin Aitken.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Lewis, Caleb, Adrian M. Lennon, Gaius Eudoxie & Pathmanathan Umaharan (2018) Genetic variation in bioaccumulation and partitioning of cadmium in Theobroma cacao L. Science of the Total Environment 640–641, 696–703
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.