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BE 10    Theobroma cacao

 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G. (1965)
Expedicao botanica a Amazonica brasileira. Cacau Atualidades (Brasil) 2: pp. 47-51.

Derivation: BElem.
Collected by CEPLAC.
Location: Pará, Belem, Brazil.

Soria, 1970a [SOR70A]. Fruit - similar to Comun type, amelonado to elongate shaped pods, generally smooth, white/green, slight-intermediate bottleneck. Seeds - small, purple.

Notes:  Vello & Mederios, 1965 [VELL65A] Brazilian International Expedition, 1965. The BE material was collected to represent a variety of fruit types.
 

Synonyms: BELEM 10, G VI 175

 NOTES

August 2006. The accession held by this name at the University of Reading Cocoa Quarantine Centre is now known to have been mislabelled.

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: R. Guama, Para, Brazil (secondary/cleared forest)
Date: 18 June 1965
Coordinates: 48.00 W, 1.30 S
Material collected: Budwood
Notes: Canal Cavado
Expedition Code: 65BR
   Soria, V.J., 1965
   Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966
   Soria, V.J., 1970
   Almeida, C.M.V.C. de et al., 1995
   Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1965

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Amelonado' Population
Subgroup: 'Amelonado Type III'   Reference

 GENOME/TRANSCRIPTOME DATA LINKS

 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018
 Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJEB28591   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
Library Source: Genomic
 
Run: SRR7774303   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629521
BioSample: SAMN09934402
SampleName: BE_10
SampleSource: Costa Rica, Tree_ID: 17422

 HELD IN

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List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 119
   - Local Name: BE 10
   - Year of Accession: 1981
List received in 1987   Reference
• Accession: 78
   - Local Name: BE 10
   - Year of Accession: 1966
List received in 2015   Reference
• Accession: BE 10 Quadra 1
   - Local Name: BE 10
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: BE-10
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10102
   - Local Name: BE-10
   - Year of Accession: 1979
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: BE10
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: BE 10
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: BE 10
List received in 1993   Reference
• Local Name: BE 10
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: BE 10
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: TARS 16576     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: BE 10
   - Year of Accession: 1983
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: BE 10
   - Year of Accession: 1989

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Moderately Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium and perithecium development.
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium growth and the production of perithecia..
 Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva, 2003
 Frosty Pod Rot
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 5.0 and Internal Severety = 5.0
 Phillips, W., 1997
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 5.0 and Internal Severety = 5.0
 Phillips, W., 1996
 Phytophthora
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Phillips, W., 1997
 Vascular Streak Dieback
15.00 % Infection (Field Reaction).
Note: Severery of infection was Moderate.. Sime Darby Plantations, Merlimau Estate.
 Lam, K.S., 1992
90.45 % Infection
Note: 22 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
 Witches Broom
Occasional (Expedition data).
 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966

 YIELD

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 Brazil - Almirante Cacao, 1997
Yield: 1139 kg ha-1 yr-1
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 97.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 26.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 26.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Seed Index: 102.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: low
 Reference
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Seed Index: 106.4 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 32.4 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 36.5
Total Dry Weight: 38.1 g
Dry Weight: 1.03 g
Note: 30 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: oblong
Number: 40.0
Total Wet Weight: 57.0 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.93 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.5 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.8 mm
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Number: 35.0
Dry Weight: 0.60 g
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Light Purple: Absent
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 37.1
Maximum Number: 49
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.53 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.98 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.7 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.9 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.6 mm
 Reference
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Number: 32.8
Dry Weight: 0.93 g
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Number: 39.8
Dry Weight: 1.23 g
 Reference
 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966
Colour: purple
Shape: round
Size: medium
Note: expedition data
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 56.50 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 59.05 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 52.21 %
Note: 10 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.30 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: mammillate
Rugosity: slight
Length: 130.0 mm
Breadth: 80.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
Weight: 515.0 g
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: slightly acute
Rugosity: slight - moderate
Husk Thickness: 12.3 mm (14.8 - 9.8)
Length: 188.0 mm
Breadth: 91.0 mm
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Weight: 725.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 3
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.06
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.72
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Length: 172.7 mm
Weight: 490.4 g
 Reference
 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966
Shape: amelonado
Rugosity: smooth
Husk Thickness: thin
Size: large
Colour: green - white
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: brown
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.56 mm
Ligule Width: 2.48 mm
Ovule Number: 42
Style Length: 2.25 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.60 mm
Sepal Length: 9.70 mm
Ligule Length: 9.30 mm
Ligule Width: 2.10 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.70 mm
Style Length: 2.40 mm
Staminode Length: 8.60 mm
Pedicel Colour: pastel red
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
 Reference

Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G. (1965) Expedicao botanica a Amazonica brasileira. Cacau Atualidades (Brasil) 2: pp. 47-51.
Soria, V.J. (1965) Notes on the cocoas collected by the Brazilian-International expedition to some areas of the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Cacao (Costa Rica) 10: pp. 10-13.
Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G. (1966) Expedicao botanica a Amazonia Brasileira. Communicado ao Pessoal Technico No. 20. Co-ordenacao Technica. CEPLAC/CEPEC, Brazil, pp. 13.
Soria, V.J. (1970) The latest cocoa expeditions to the Amazon Basin. Cacao (Costa Rica) 15: pp. 5-15.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Machado, P.F.R., de, Barriga, J.P. & Silva, F.C.O. da. (1995) Coleta da cacau (Theobroma cacao) da amazonia brasileira: uma abordagem historica e analitica. CEPLAC, SRAO, Porto Velho, RO., Brasil. pp. 92.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L). PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Almeida, Caio Márcio Vasconcellos Cordeiro de, Francisco Antônio Neto, Acácio de Paula, Silva, José Raymundo Pires Medeiros & Antonio de Almeida Lima (2015) RECURSOS GENÉTICOS DE CACAUEIRO EM RONDÔNIA: RETROSPECTIVA HISTÓRICA, ORIGEM E INVENTÁRIO [Genetic Resources of Cacao in Rondônia: Historical Overview, Origin and Inventory]. Agrotrópica (Itabuna) 27 (2): 93–124
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Soloman Islands - S.I. Plantns (1993) Inventory of Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd. Unpublished report, Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd, Soloman Islands, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Philippe Bastide. (2012) Les clones suivis au Vanuatu (unpublished list of accessions). Personal communication, February 2012.
Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello (2003) Evaluación de la Resistencia Al Mal del Machete en Clones Internacionales de Cacao en Ecuador. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva (2003) Ensaios Para Avaliação do Cacaueiro à Murcha-de-Ceratocystis na Bahia, Brasil. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Moniliophthora rorei using the Aspersion method. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Phillips, W. (1996) Cocoa cultivar reaction when innoculated with Moniliophthora roreri. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Phytophthora palmivora using the Paper Disc method. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Lam, K.S. (1992) Performance of imported clones in Sime Darby Plantations. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Brazil - Almirante Cacao (1997) Percentage fat content of seed and nibs from selected clones. Data supplied on computer diskette by Martin Aitken
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin (1992) Early evaluation of some cocoa germplasm at Pusut Perkhidmatan Pertanian Tun Razak. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.