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SPA 7 [COL]    Theobroma cacao

 Colombia - ICA Palmira (1989)
? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA Palmira, Colombia.

Derivation: Seleccion PAlmira.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Palmira, Colombia.

As these are all progeny from a single fruit they should all have basically then same characteristics. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. Leaf - some unpigmented, large, broad and have an undulating (puckered/crinkled) surface. Fruit - basically similar in shape being broad elongate with slight roughness. Seed - some white. Bartley, 1997a [BAR97A]. Variation seen in flush leaf pigmentation from light green (white); the pigmentation of the stamen, which is often intense; and the colour of the fruit, which is either light green or dark green with a tendancy to be shiny.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979, [LOC79A] Collections made in Colombia by Pound, somewhere in the Amazon valley. Very similar to some Ecuador Oriente types.

Progeny of a fruit donated to Colombia by Pound (1943?).

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The association between unpigmented flush leaves and white cotyledons found in some of these clones is typical of the genotypes from the Napo river. Pound did visit Santa Clotilde, the Peruvian research station on this river and the material may therefore have originated in this region.

In previous versions of the ICGD the SPA [COL] clones were included as synonyms of the group SC [COL] (SC 57 - 76 inclusive). The synonymy has now been reversed as this material was originally described as SPA and is more widely known under this name, as advised by Dr. Bartley.


Synonyms: SC 62 [COL]

Location: Palmira, Valle del Cauca, Colombia
Coordinates: 76.50 W, 3.50 N
   Marita, J. M. et al., 2001


 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJEB28591   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
Library Source: Genomic
Run: SRR7774323   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629501
BioSample: SAMN09934553
SampleName: SPA_7
SampleSource: Costa Rica

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1552     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: SPA 7 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 2005
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 222
   - Local Name: SPA 7
   - Year of Accession: 1981
List received in 1987   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 7 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1985
• Accession: 2349
   - Local Name: SPA 7 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: SC 62 [COL]
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10507
   - Local Name: SPA-7
   - Year of Accession: 1960
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 7 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1969
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 315263     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: SPA 7 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1939

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Moderate Resistance, 80.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 1.8 and Internal Severety = 2.3
 Phillips, W., 1996
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and 3mm stab inoculated
 Iwaro, A.D. et al., 1998
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and 9mm stab inoculated
 Iwaro, A.D. et al., 1998
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998
Intermediate (Field Reaction).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M., 1997
Susceptible (Seedling).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M., 1997
Susceptible (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998

Pod Index: 26.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
Seed Index: 80.6 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: low - medium

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Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 47.0
Total Wet Weight: 49.8 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.79 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.4 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.4 mm
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Light Purple: Present
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 42.3
Maximum Number: 50
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.85 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.24 g
Cotyledon Length: 24.5 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.3 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.8 mm
Colour Purple: 78 %
Colour Light Purple: 22 %
Size: medium
Number: 38.7
Length: 20.8 mm
Width: 11.9 mm
Thickness: 8.1 mm
Total Wet Weight: 102.3 g
Wet Weight: 1.69 g
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.40 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.01 g

Testa: 6.30 %
Testa: 9.60 %

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Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 159.0 mm
Breadth: 80.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
Rugosity: intense
Basal Constriction: very slight
Apex Form: slightly acute
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 15.1 mm (18.1 - 12.1)
Length: 212.0 mm
Breadth: 108.0 mm
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Weight: 1171.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 4
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.96
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.92
Shape: orbicular
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: rounded
Rugosity: smooth
Husk Thickness: 0.50 mm
Length: 183.6 mm
Breadth: 87.5 mm
Colour: orange
Weight: 661.0 g
Hardness: soft
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.09
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green

Accession: RUQ 1552
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.43 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.07 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.12 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 79.20 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.29 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 319.20 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 2.18 g
Specific Leaf Area: 147.90 cm2 g-1

Colour: anthocyanin absent
Colour: greyish yellow

Shape: obovate
Length: 235.1 mm
Width: 95.5 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.46
Apex Form: acuminate
Pulvinus Present: Yes
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 108 mm
Length: 228.0 mm
Width: 98.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.30
Basal Angle: 111.8 °
Apical Angle: 71.7 °
Petiole Length: 19 mm
Pulvinus Length: 16 mm

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Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.43 mm
Ligule Width: 3.14 mm
Ovule Number: 40
Style Length: 2.10 mm
Pedicel Colour: green
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.40 mm
Sepal Length: 8.71 mm
Ligule Length: 9.62 mm
Ligule Width: 3.12 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Ovary Width: 0.97 mm
Ovary Length: 1.44 mm
Style Length: 2.38 mm
Staminode Length: 8.72 mm
Pedicel Colour: yellowish white
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Petal Length: 11.30 mm
Sepal Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Width: 2.00 mm
Sepal Length: 8.45 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 4.22
Ligule Length: 3.60 mm
Ligule Width: 2.93 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 1.22
Ribbon Length: 3.86 mm
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.05 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.05
Ovule Number: 51
Style Length: 2.00 mm
Staminode Colour: purplish red
Staminode Length: 7.00 mm
Pedicel Length: 13.50 mm
Pedicel Colour: greenish white
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: absent
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Self Compatibility: self compatible
Note: Translation of Pantone colour codes.
Self Compatibility: self incompatible

Colombia - ICA Palmira (1989) ? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA Palmira, Colombia.
Marita, J. M., Nienhuis, J., Pires, J. L. & Aitken, W. M. (2001) Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Theobroma cacao with Emphasis on Witches’ Broom Disease Resistance. Crop Sci. 41:1305–1316.
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Phillips, W. (1996) Cocoa cultivar reaction when innoculated with Moniliophthora roreri. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Iwaro, A.D., Sreenivasan, T.N. & Umaharan, P. (1998) Cacao resistance to Phytophthora: Effect of pathogen species, inoculation depths and pod maturity. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104: pp.11-15
Iwaro, D. (1998) Evalation of accessions for Black Pod. Personal Communication 30th October 1998. Data sent by email from Dr. Iwaro.
Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M. (1997) Evaluating resistance/tolerance to Witches' Broom disease in Bahia, Brazil. Final Report to ACRI. CEPLAC/CEPEC, February, 1997. pp. 56. Data supplied to ICGD by Luz & Silva.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Colombia - ICA Palmira (1986) ? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira. ICA Palmira, Colombia.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.