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SPA 10 [COL]    Theobroma cacao

 Colombia - ICA Palmira (1989)
? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA Palmira, Colombia.

Derivation: Seleccion PAlmira.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Palmira, Colombia.

As these are all progeny from a single fruit they should all have basically then same characteristics. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. Leaf - some unpigmented, large, broad and have an undulating (puckered/crinkled) surface. Fruit - basically similar in shape being broad elongate with slight roughness. Seed - some white. Bartley, 1997a [BAR97A]. Variation seen in flush leaf pigmentation from light green (white); the pigmentation of the stamen, which is often intense; and the colour of the fruit, which is either light green or dark green with a tendancy to be shiny.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979, [LOC79A] Collections made in Colombia by Pound, somewhere in the Amazon valley. Very similar to some Ecuador Oriente types.

Progeny of a fruit donated to Colombia by Pound (1943?).

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The association between unpigmented flush leaves and white cotyledons found in some of these clones is typical of the genotypes from the Napo river. Pound did visit Santa Clotilde, the Peruvian research station on this river and the material may therefore have originated in this region.

In previous versions of the ICGD the SPA [COL] clones were included as synonyms of the group SC [COL] (SC 57 - 76 inclusive). The synonymy has now been reversed as this material was originally described as SPA and is more widely known under this name, as advised by Dr. Bartley.


Synonyms: SC 65 [COL]


 Jaime A Osorio-Guarín et al., 2020
BioProject: PRJNA734904   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Library Source: Genomic
Run: SRR14743802   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX11078320
BioSample: SAMN19549229
SampleName: SPA10
SampleSource: AGROSAVIA, Colombia

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List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: SC 65 [COL]
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10509
   - Local Name: SPA-10
   - Year of Accession: 1960
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 10 [COL]
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 10 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1969
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668439     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: SPA 10 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1939

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 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Phillips, W., 1997
12.80 % Infection (Field Reaction).
Note: 5.1% of trees with <30% infected branches, 7.7% of trees with 30 to 70% infected branches, 0.0% of trees with >70% infected branches.. Sime Darby Plantations, Devon Estate.
 Lam, K.S., 1992
37.14 % Infection
Note: 21 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998

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Seed Index: 68.4 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 19.5 (pods per kg dried beans)
Seed Index: 126.5 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 30.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
Pod Index: 35.0 (pods per kg dried beans)
Seed Index: 93.4 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: high
Seed Index: 88.1 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 21.3 (pods per kg dried beans)

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Number: 35.1
Dry Weight: 1.46 g
Number: 41.0
Total Dry Weight: 32.3 g
Dry Weight: 0.79 g
Note: 54 plants sampled
Colour: dark purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 44.0
Total Wet Weight: 47.9 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.65 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.6 mm
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Light Purple: Absent
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 39.8
Maximum Number: 56
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.51 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.07 g
Cotyledon Length: 23.6 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.9 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.3 mm
Colour Purple: 94 %
Colour Light Purple: 6 %
Size: medium
Number: 31.6
Length: 22.9 mm
Width: 11.3 mm
Thickness: 8.5 mm
Total Wet Weight: 94.2 g
Wet Weight: 1.60 g
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.30 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.98 g
Number: 40.1
Dry Weight: 1.13 g

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Butterfat Content: 59.10 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 61.81 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 57.33 %
Note: 10 plants sampled
Testa: 2.20 %
Testa: 10.56 %

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Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: indented
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 145.0 mm
Breadth: 79.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
Basal Constriction: very slight
Apex Form: obtuse - slightly acute
Rugosity: slight
Husk Thickness: 9.3 mm (11.4 - 7.2)
Length: 174.0 mm
Breadth: 91.0 mm
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Weight: 640.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 7
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.91
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.97
Shape: oblong
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: rounded
Rugosity: smooth
Husk Thickness: 0.56 mm
Length: 155.0 mm
Breadth: 80.9 mm
Colour: orange - green
Weight: 419.0 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.91
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green

Colour: slight anthocyanin
Colour: reddish brown

Shape: elliptic
Length: 259.5 mm
Width: 88.6 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.92
Apex Form: acuminate
Pulvinus Present: Yes
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 159 mm
Length: 316.0 mm
Width: 105.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 3.00
Basal Angle: 114.9 °
Apical Angle: 59.0 °
Petiole Length: 16 mm
Pulvinus Length: 12 mm

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Self Compatibility: self compatible
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.37 mm
Ligule Width: 2.62 mm
Ovule Number: 54
Style Length: 2.31 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: yellowish green
Sepal Width: 2.84 mm
Sepal Length: 8.26 mm
Ligule Length: 7.27 mm
Ligule Width: 2.85 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Ovary Width: 0.95 mm
Ovary Length: 1.41 mm
Style Length: 2.51 mm
Staminode Length: 6.85 mm
Pedicel Colour: yellowish white
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Petal Length: 8.40 mm
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.00 mm
Sepal Length: 6.70 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 3.35
Ligule Length: 2.10 mm
Ligule Width: 2.10 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 1.00
Ribbon Length: 3.00 mm
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.05 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.05
Ovule Number: 56
Style Length: 2.00 mm
Staminode Colour: greyish magenta
Staminode Length: 6.10 mm
Pedicel Length: 11.90 mm
Pedicel Colour: dark red
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: absent
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
Note: Translation of Pantone colour codes.
Self Compatibility: self incompatible

Colombia - ICA Palmira (1989) ? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA Palmira, Colombia.
Jaime A Osorio-Guarín, Jhon A Berdugo-Cely, Roberto A Coronado-Silva, Eliana Baez, Yeirme Jaimes, Roxana Yockteng (2020) Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Candidate Genes Associated with Productivity and Disease Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 1713–1725
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Phytophthora palmivora using the Paper Disc method. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Lam, K.S. (1992) Performance of imported clones in Sime Darby Plantations. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU). In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Colombia - ICA Palmira (1986) ? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira. ICA Palmira, Colombia.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.