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SPA 12 [COL]    Theobroma cacao

 Colombia - ICA Palmira (1989)
? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA Palmira, Colombia.

Derivation: Seleccion PAlmira.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Palmira, Colombia.

As these are all progeny from a single fruit they should all have basically then same characteristics. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. Leaf - some unpigmented, large, broad and have an undulating (puckered/crinkled) surface. Fruit - basically similar in shape being broad elongate with slight roughness. Seed - some white. Bartley, 1997a [BAR97A]. Variation seen in flush leaf pigmentation from light green (white); the pigmentation of the stamen, which is often intense; and the colour of the fruit, which is either light green or dark green with a tendancy to be shiny.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979, [LOC79A] Collections made in Colombia by Pound, somewhere in the Amazon valley. Very similar to some Ecuador Oriente types.

Progeny of a fruit donated to Colombia by Pound (1943?).

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The association between unpigmented flush leaves and white cotyledons found in some of these clones is typical of the genotypes from the Napo river. Pound did visit Santa Clotilde, the Peruvian research station on this river and the material may therefore have originated in this region.

In previous versions of the ICGD the SPA [COL] clones were included as synonyms of the group SC [COL] (SC 57 - 76 inclusive). The synonymy has now been reversed as this material was originally described as SPA and is more widely known under this name, as advised by Dr. Bartley.


Synonyms: SC 67 [COL]

Location: Palmira, Valle del Cauca, Colombia
Coordinates: 76.50 W, 3.50 N
   Marita, J. M. et al., 2001

 Mother to:
CEPEC 1003    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
 Father to:
CEPEC 1003    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987


 Jaime A Osorio-Guarín et al., 2020
BioProject: PRJNA734904   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Library Source: Genomic
Run: SRR14743801   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX11078321
BioSample: SAMN19549230
SampleName: SPA12
SampleSource: AGROSAVIA, Colombia

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List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 225
   - Local Name: SPA 12
   - Year of Accession: 1982
List received in 2015   Reference
• Accession: SPA 12 Quadra 5
   - Local Name: SPA 12
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPA-12
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: SC 67 [COL]
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10511
   - Local Name: SPA-12
   - Year of Accession: 1960
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 12 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 12 [COL]
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 12 [COL]
List received in 1993   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 12 [COL]
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 12 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1994

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Susceptible, 82.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 2.4 and Internal Severety = 3.8
 Phillips, W., 1996
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993
 Sharma, M., 1992
 Sharma, M., 1992

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Seed Index: 116.2 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 25.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
Seed Index: 112.3 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 25.6 (pods per kg dried beans)
Pod Index: 19.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
Seed Index: 77.5 (dried beans per 100g)

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Number: 44.4
Total Dry Weight: 38.6 g
Dry Weight: 0.86 g
Note: 65 plants sampled
Number: 44.0
Total Dry Weight: 39.1 g
Dry Weight: 0.89 g
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 45.0
Total Wet Weight: 70.8 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.15 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 13.5 mm
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Light Purple: Absent
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 43.1
Maximum Number: 31
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.92 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.29 g
Cotyledon Length: 25.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.2 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.8 mm
Colour Purple: 91 %
Colour Light Purple: 8 %
Colour White: 1 %
Size: medium
Number: 41.6
Length: 24.3 mm
Width: 13.1 mm
Thickness: 8.0 mm
Total Wet Weight: 107.9 g
Wet Weight: 1.78 g
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.58 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.16 g

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Butterfat Content: 56.80 %
Note: 10 plants sampled
Butterfat Content: 56.40 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 56.37 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 56.37 %
Note: 1 plant sampled
Testa: 5.50 %
Testa: 12.65 %

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Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 179.0 mm
Breadth: 86.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Rugosity: moderate
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 13.35 mm (15.9 - 10.8)
Length: 210.0 mm
Breadth: 106.0 mm
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Weight: 1009.0 g
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.98
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.89
Shape: orbicular
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: rounded
Rugosity: slight
Husk Thickness: 0.62 mm
Length: 159.0 mm
Breadth: 93.0 mm
Colour: yellow
Weight: 465.0 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.75
Shape: angoleta
Colour: green

Colour: intense anthocyanin
Colour: brownish orange

Shape: obovate
Length: 253.4 mm
Width: 104.6 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.42
Apex Form: acuminate
Pulvinus Present: Yes

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Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.22 mm
Ligule Width: 2.82 mm
Ovule Number: 51
Style Length: 2.52 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.82 mm
Sepal Length: 9.26 mm
Ligule Length: 9.51 mm
Ligule Width: 3.05 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Ovary Width: 0.97 mm
Ovary Length: 1.44 mm
Style Length: 2.39 mm
Staminode Length: 8.90 mm
Pedicel Colour: yellowish white
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Petal Length: 12.40 mm
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.35 mm
Sepal Length: 8.80 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 3.74
Ligule Length: 3.36 mm
Ligule Width: 3.00 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 1.12
Ribbon Length: 4.00 mm
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.50 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.50
Ovule Number: 51
Style Length: 2.00 mm
Staminode Colour: dark purple
Staminode Length: 7.45 mm
Pedicel Length: 15.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: greenish white
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Self Compatibility: self compatible
Note: Translation of Pantone colour codes.
Self Compatibility: self incompatible

Colombia - ICA Palmira (1989) ? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA Palmira, Colombia.
Marita, J. M., Nienhuis, J., Pires, J. L. & Aitken, W. M. (2001) Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Theobroma cacao with Emphasis on Witches’ Broom Disease Resistance. Crop Sci. 41:1305–1316.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Jaime A Osorio-Guarín, Jhon A Berdugo-Cely, Roberto A Coronado-Silva, Eliana Baez, Yeirme Jaimes, Roxana Yockteng (2020) Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Candidate Genes Associated with Productivity and Disease Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 1713–1725
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, Caio Márcio Vasconcellos Cordeiro de, Francisco Antônio Neto, Acácio de Paula, Silva, José Raymundo Pires Medeiros & Antonio de Almeida Lima (2015) RECURSOS GENÉTICOS DE CACAUEIRO EM RONDÔNIA: RETROSPECTIVA HISTÓRICA, ORIGEM E INVENTÁRIO [Genetic Resources of Cacao in Rondônia: Historical Overview, Origin and Inventory]. Agrotrópica (Itabuna) 27 (2): 93–124
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
PNG - Cocoa & Coconut Research (1998) Current list of cocoa accessions at the PNG CCRI. Mr. Mathias Faure, Personal Communication.
Soloman Islands - S.I. Plantns (1993) Inventory of Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd. Unpublished report, Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd, Soloman Islands, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
Phillips, W. (1996) Cocoa cultivar reaction when innoculated with Moniliophthora roreri. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Sharma, M. (1992) The performance of imported F0 clones at United Plantations Bhd. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Colombia - ICA Palmira (1986) ? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira. ICA Palmira, Colombia.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.