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IMC 78    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, Peru.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

Synonyms: IQUITOS MIXED 78


 Mother to:
IFC 1262 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
 Putative Half-Sibs:
Group P27   Zhang, D. et al., 2009
IMC 10 
IMC 105 
IMC 107 
IMC 11 
IMC 12 
IMC 13 
IMC 16 
IMC 18 
IMC 23 
IMC 27 
IMC 30 
IMC 33 
IMC 38 
IMC 42 
IMC 44 
IMC 47 
IMC 53 
IMC 55 
IMC 58 
IMC 59 
IMC 6 
IMC 60 
IMC 61 
IMC 63 
IMC 65 
IMC 68 
IMC 71 
IMC 76 
IMC 77 
IMC 85 
IMC 9 
IMC 96 
IMC 98 


 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC I'   Reference


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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1678     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 78
   - Year of Accession: 2008
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22169
   - Local Name: IMC-78
   - Year of Accession: 2014
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 78
   - Year of Accession: 1974
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 78
   - Year of Accession: 1990
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC78
   - Year of Accession: 1973
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 78
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 78
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 78
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 78


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 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Moderately Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf).
 Kebe, 1999
 Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus
 Lockwood, G., 1986
 Witches Broom
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 23.3 (pods per kg dried beans)


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: oblong
Number: 53.0
Total Wet Weight: 69.0 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.81 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.6 mm
Cotyledon Width: 10.7 mm


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 4.70 %
 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 53.35 %
Testa: 6.30 %


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 166.0 mm
Breadth: 84.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa


 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1678
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.22 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.07 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 0.97 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 74.30 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.56 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 7
Leaf Area: 271.50 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.59 g
Specific Leaf Area: 174.30 cm2 g-1


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin


 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 112 mm
Length: 248.0 mm
Width: 80.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 3.10
Basal Angle: 123.2 °
Apical Angle: 73.2 °
Petiole Length: 18 mm
Pulvinus Length: 13 mm


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.78 mm
Ligule Width: 2.21 mm
Ovule Number: 49
Style Length: 2.05 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 French Guiana - CIRAD-CP, 2003
Ovule Number: 57

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Clement, D. & Sounigo, O. (1992) Ivory Coast Database. D. Clement & O. Sounigo, IRCC, Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Zhang, D., Boccara, M., Motilal, L., Mischke S., Johnson, E.S., Butler, D.R., Bailey, B. & Meinhardt, L. (2009) Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Upper Amazon using microsatellite DNA markers. Tree Genetics & Genomes. doi:10.1007/s11295-009-0212-2
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L). PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) F. Guiana database, CIRAD-CP. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Honduras - CEDEC (1994) List of accessions in CEDEC, La Masica, Honduras. J.A. Sanchez, FHIA, Honduras. Personal Communication.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
PNG - Cocoa & Coconut Research (1998) Current list of cocoa accessions at the PNG CCRI. Mr. Mathias Faure, Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Iwaro, D. (1998) Evalation of accessions for Black Pod. Personal Communication 30th October 1998. Data sent by email from Dr. Iwaro.
Kebe (1999) Data from Cote d'Ivoire on black pod resistance. Kebe, report on CAOBISCO project. Forwarded to ICGD by Dr. A.B.Eskes, IPGRI.
Lockwood, G. (1986) Report on cocoa breeding & seed production. Unpublished report for the Government of Ghana, Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, CDC (UK.). pp. 23.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
French Guiana - CIRAD-CP (2003) F. Guiana database 2003. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Ph. Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, 17 March 2003.