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PA 70 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, Peru.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

Synonyms: PARINARI 70 [PER]


Recommended seed parent in:
Seed Garden / Source: PSCC/IRAD
Female Parent in Seed Garden with: IMC 60   |  UPA 143   |  UPA 337   |  BBK 726   |  P 7 [POU]   |  PA 7 [PER]   |  GU 255 /V   |  GU 144 /C   |  IMC 67   |  PA 107 [PER]   |  PA 150 [PER]   |  SCA 12   |  SCA 6   |  SCA 24   |  T 60 /887 [POS]   |  T 79 /501 [POS]   |  UPA 134   |  SNK 630   |  ICS 84   |  SNK 15   |  SNK 413   |  SNK 64   |  SNK 608   |  SNK 620   |  TIKO 32   |  BBK 1016   |  BBK 109 
Recommended by: Institut de Recherche Agricole pour le Développement (IRAD), Cameroon
Status: current

'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari I'   Reference


 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJEB28591   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
Library Source: Genomic
Run: SRR7774232   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629592
BioSample: SAMN09934524
SampleName: PA_70
SampleSource: gDNA Miami, Tree_ID: Tc15954

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 33     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 70 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 1142
   - Local Name: PA 70
• Accession: 1142
   - Local Name: PA 70
• Accession: 543
   - Local Name: PA 70
   - Year of Accession: 1985
• Accession: 936
   - Local Name: PA 70
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA-70
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21860
   - Local Name: PA-70 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2004
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA70
   - Year of Accession: 1974
List received in 1997   Reference
• Accession: 313
   - Local Name: PA 70 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: PA 70 [PER]
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: PA 70 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 70 [PER]
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668490     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 70[PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2008
List received in 2010   Reference
• Accession: MIA 35977     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 70
   - Year of Accession: 2003

Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Score: 3 (1-8 Scale). Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old).
 A.D. Iwaro et al., 2006
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003

Pod Index: 29.7 (pods per kg dried beans)

Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 34.0
Total Wet Weight: 47.6 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.99 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.3 mm

Testa: 5.60 %
Butterfat Content: 55.80 %
Testa: 3.90 %

Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 177.0 mm
Breadth: 83.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
Rugosity: intense

Accession: RUQ 33
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 3.26 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.06 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 0.88 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 64.66 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.72 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 189.80 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.45 g
Specific Leaf Area: 133.90 cm2 g-1

Colour: slight anthocyanin

Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.52 mm
Ligule Width: 2.05 mm
Ovule Number: 36
Style Length: 2.23 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
Self Compatibility: self incompatible

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Sounigo, Olivier & Ives Bruno Efombagn Mousseni (2012) Cocoa Improvement and Variety Delivery Effort in Cameroon. INGENIC Seventh Workshop: Cocoa Variety Development and the Supply of Planting Materials to Farmers. 21st - 22nd October 2012
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L). PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
India - Kerala (1997) List of survivng clones from all the introductions. R.V. Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, India. Personal Communication.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
USDA-ARS, SHRS, NCGR, National Germplasm Repository, Miami, Florida, USA. (2010) List of cocoa accessions held at Miami and Coconut Grove (Plant Introduction Station) in July, 2010. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
A.D. Iwaro, D.R. Butler & A.B. Eskes (2006) Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2006) 53: 99–109
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.
Yamada, M.M., Bartley, B.G.D., Lopes, U.V. & Pinto, L.R.M. (1996) Heranca do fator compatibilidade em Theobroma cacao L. II. Relacoes fenotipicas em genotipos adicionais grupo Parinari (PA). Agrotropica 8 (2): 51-52.