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SPA 5 [COL]    Theobroma cacao

 Colombia - ICA Palmira (1989)
? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA Palmira, Colombia.

Derivation: Seleccion PAlmira.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Palmira, Colombia.

As these are all progeny from a single fruit they should all have basically then same characteristics. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. Leaf - some unpigmented, large, broad and have an undulating (puckered/crinkled) surface. Fruit - basically similar in shape being broad elongate with slight roughness. Seed - some white. Bartley, 1997a [BAR97A]. Variation seen in flush leaf pigmentation from light green (white); the pigmentation of the stamen, which is often intense; and the colour of the fruit, which is either light green or dark green with a tendancy to be shiny.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979, [LOC79A] Collections made in Colombia by Pound, somewhere in the Amazon valley. Very similar to some Ecuador Oriente types.

Progeny of a fruit donated to Colombia by Pound (1943?).

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The association between unpigmented flush leaves and white cotyledons found in some of these clones is typical of the genotypes from the Napo river. Pound did visit Santa Clotilde, the Peruvian research station on this river and the material may therefore have originated in this region.

In previous versions of the ICGD the SPA [COL] clones were included as synonyms of the group SC [COL] (SC 57 - 76 inclusive). The synonymy has now been reversed as this material was originally described as SPA and is more widely known under this name, as advised by Dr. Bartley.


Synonyms: SC 60 [COL]

Location: Palmira, Valle del Cauca, Colombia
Coordinates: 76.50 W, 3.50 N
   Marita, J. M. et al., 2001


 Jaime A Osorio-Guarín et al., 2020
BioProject: PRJNA734904   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Library Source: Genomic
Run: SRR14743797   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX11078325
BioSample: SAMN19549233
SampleName: SPA5
SampleSource: AGROSAVIA, Colombia

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List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 221
   - Local Name: SPA 5
   - Year of Accession: 1981
• Accession: 221
   - Local Name: SPA 5
   - Year of Accession: 1980
List received in 1987   Reference
• Accession: 534
   - Local Name: SPA 5 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1982
List received in 2015   Reference
• Accession: SPA 5 Quadra 5
   - Local Name: SPA 5
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPA-5
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: SC 60 [COL]
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10506
   - Local Name: SPA-5
   - Year of Accession: 1960
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 5 E
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 5 [COL]
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 5 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1969

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Susceptible, 98.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 3.5 and Internal Severety = 4.6
 Phillips, W., 1996
Susceptible, 98.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 3.5 and Internal Severety = 4.6
 Phillips, W., 1997
Moderately Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Phillips, W., 1997
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993

Pod Index: 37.0 (pods per kg dried beans)
Seed Index: 71.9 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: medium

Colour: light purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 41.0
Total Wet Weight: 46.6 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.66 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.1 mm
Colour Dark Purple: Absent
Colour Light Purple: Present
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 30.9
Maximum Number: 49
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 2.19 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.39 g
Cotyledon Length: 25.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 13.3 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 10.4 mm

Testa: 8.40 %

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Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: slight
Length: 140.0 mm
Breadth: 73.0 mm
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
Rugosity: moderate
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: slightly acute
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 12.9 mm (15.4 - 10.4)
Length: 202.0 mm
Breadth: 92.0 mm
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Weight: 858.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 5
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.19
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.79
Shape: angoleta
Colour: green

Colour: slight anthocyanin
Colour: reddish brown

Distance from Base to Widest Part: 149 mm
Length: 298.0 mm
Width: 106.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.80
Basal Angle: 113.8 °
Apical Angle: 62.7 °
Petiole Length: 23 mm
Pulvinus Length: 17 mm

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Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 7.62 mm
Ligule Width: 2.31 mm
Ovule Number: 45
Style Length: 2.16 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.35 mm
Sepal Length: 8.05 mm
Ligule Length: 7.45 mm
Ligule Width: 2.81 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Ovary Width: 0.91 mm
Ovary Length: 1.34 mm
Style Length: 2.29 mm
Staminode Length: 7.08 mm
Pedicel Colour: yellowish white
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
Self Compatibility: self compatible

Colombia - ICA Palmira (1989) ? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA Palmira, Colombia.
Marita, J. M., Nienhuis, J., Pires, J. L. & Aitken, W. M. (2001) Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Theobroma cacao with Emphasis on Witches’ Broom Disease Resistance. Crop Sci. 41:1305–1316.
Jaime A Osorio-Guarín, Jhon A Berdugo-Cely, Roberto A Coronado-Silva, Eliana Baez, Yeirme Jaimes, Roxana Yockteng (2020) Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Candidate Genes Associated with Productivity and Disease Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 1713–1725
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Almeida, Caio Márcio Vasconcellos Cordeiro de, Francisco Antônio Neto, Acácio de Paula, Silva, José Raymundo Pires Medeiros & Antonio de Almeida Lima (2015) RECURSOS GENÉTICOS DE CACAUEIRO EM RONDÔNIA: RETROSPECTIVA HISTÓRICA, ORIGEM E INVENTÁRIO [Genetic Resources of Cacao in Rondônia: Historical Overview, Origin and Inventory]. Agrotrópica (Itabuna) 27 (2): 93–124
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) CIRAD Montpellier Clone List (Excel Spreadsheet). Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1998) List of Imported Clones of the Malaysian Cocoa Board, January 1998. K. Lamin, MCB, Malaysia, Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
Phillips, W. (1996) Cocoa cultivar reaction when innoculated with Moniliophthora roreri. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Moniliophthora rorei using the Aspersion method. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Phytophthora palmivora using the Paper Disc method. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.