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PA 35 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, Peru.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

Synonyms: PARINARI 35 [PER]


Recommended seed parent in:
Indonesia (North Sumatera)
Seed Garden / Source: PT Perkebunan Nusantara IV
Other Seed Garden Parents: ICS 60   |  TSH 858   |  UF 667   |  NA 32   |  NA 33   |  IMC 67 
Recommended by: Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), Indonesia
Recommended seed parent in:
Indonesia (South-east Sulawesi)
Seed Garden / Source: PT Hasfarm Agro Niaga
Other Seed Garden Parents: NA 32   |  NA 33   |  UIT 1   |  UIT 2   |  SCA 6   |  IMC 67 
Recommended by: Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), Indonesia

 Mother to:
A 1235 [MYS]    Department of Agriculture, Malaysia., 1988
A 1451 [MYS]    Department of Agriculture, Malaysia., 1988
A 877 [MYS]    Department of Agriculture, Malaysia., 1988
A 969 [MYS]    Department of Agriculture, Malaysia., 1988
BAL 209    Pang, J.T.Y. et al., 1994
C 65 [TAF]    Toxopeus, H., 1968
C 74 [TAF]    Toxopeus, H., 1968
T 63 [POS]    Ghana - WACRI, No Date
T 76 [POS]    Ghana - WACRI, No Date
T 86 [POS]    Togo - IRCC Togo, 1986
 Father to:
PBC 130    Malaysia - Prang Besar, 1982
T 82 [POS]    Ghana - WACRI, No Date
UPC 50    Lee, M.T. et al., 1993


 Jaime A Osorio-Guarín et al., 2020
BioProject: PRJNA734904   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Library Source: Genomic
Run: SRR14743842   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX11078280
BioSample: SAMN19549192
SampleName: PA35
SampleSource: AGROSAVIA, Colombia

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List received in 1985   Reference
• Local Name: PA 35 [PER]
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: PA 35 [PER]
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: PA 35 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1962
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA - 35
   - Year of Accession: 1971
List received in 1992   Reference
• Local Name: PA 35 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA35
   - Year of Accession: 1973
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00187
   - Local Name: PA35
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: PA 35 [PER]
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: PA 35 [PER]
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: Pa35
List received in 1991   Reference
• Local Name: PA 35 [PER]
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 35 [PER]

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Intermediate, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Togo - IRCC Togo, 1986
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
Tolerant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
57.00 % Infection
Note: 20 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
 Phua, P.K. et al., 1990

 K. F. N’Guessan et al., 2003

Seed Index: 83.3 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 21.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
Seed Index: 77.5 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 24.2 (pods per kg dried beans)

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Number: 37.9
Dry Weight: 1.20 g
Number: 31.7
Total Dry Weight: 41.3 g
Dry Weight: 1.29 g
Note: 53 plants sampled
Colour: dark purple
Number: 53.0

Butterfat Content: 55.70 %
Note: 7 plants sampled

Colour: intermediate anthocyanin
Colour: intense anthocyanin

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Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 9.00 mm
Ovary Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Pedicel Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Self Compatibility: self compatible
Self Compatibility: self compatible
Self Compatibility: self incompatible

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Susilo, Agung W (2015) BREEDING PROGRAM AND DEVELOPMENT PLANTING MATERIAL OF COCOA (Theobroma Cacao L.) IN INDONESIA. Asia Pacific Regional Cocoa Research Workshop Davao Philippines, 12-15th October 2015.
Department of Agriculture, Malaysia. (1988) 1988 Annual Research Report. Cocoa Research Station, Quoin Hill, Tawau. Research Branch, Department of Agriculture, Sabah, Malaysia.
Pang, J.T.Y., Lim, D.H.K. & Lockwood, G. (1994) Clonal cocoa trials and selection for superior clones. In: Proceedings of the International Cocoa Conference: Challenges in the 90's, Kuala Lumpur, 1991. Malaysian Cocoa Board, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. pp. 38-47.
Toxopeus, H. (1968) Establishment of cacao clones in Nigeria. Euphytica, 17: pp 38-45.
Ghana - WACRI (No Date) WACRI Cocoa Varieties. Explanatory notes. West African Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. A. Asare Nyako, Ghanaian Cocoa Board, Ghana. Personal Communication.
Togo - IRCC Togo (1986) Collection de cacaoyers. Composition au 1er Janvier, 1986. IRCC Togo. A.B. Eskes, IRCC, Montpellier, France. Personal Communication.
Malaysia - Prang Besar (1982) Prang Besar Cocoa Clones. Internal Report, Harisson & Crossfields, Prang Besar Research Station, Malaysia. pp. 20.
Lee, M.T., Tay, E.B., Lamin, K. & Saedi, M. (1993) Catalogue of locally collected clones in Malaysia. Catalogue compiled by the Malaysian Cocoa Board, Sabah, Malaysia.
Jaime A Osorio-Guarín, Jhon A Berdugo-Cely, Roberto A Coronado-Silva, Eliana Baez, Yeirme Jaimes, Roxana Yockteng (2020) Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Candidate Genes Associated with Productivity and Disease Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 1713–1725
Cameroon - IRAD Cameroun (1985) Collection Camerounaise de cacaoyers (situation en Juillet, 1985). Unpublished report, IRCC Cameroun. Supplied by A.B. Eskes, IRCC Montpellier.
Leon, J. & Sgaravatti, E. (1971) Provisional list of genetic materials for plant introduction and exchange. AGPE Misc 71/2. FAO, Rome. pp. 26.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
Fiji - Naduruloulou (1992) Cocoa collection - Fiji Naduruloulou Research Station. G. Prasad, Koronivia Research Station, Nausari, Fiji. Personal Communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul (2012) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Chumphon Research Center, Thailand. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul, Agricultural Research Officer, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. January 2012.
Togo - IRCC Togo (1991) Collection des clones de cacaoyers presents au Togo. Unpublished report, IRCC Togo, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
Clement, D. & Sounigo, O. (1992) Ivory Coast Database. D. Clement & O. Sounigo, IRCC, Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Phua, P.K., Lamin, K & Lee, M.T. (1990) Cocoa germplasm in Sabah and their potential. In: Proceedings of the MCGC-Malaysia Cocoa Board Workshop on Cocoa Agricultural Research. MCGC, Malaysia.
K. F. N’Guessan, A. B. Eskes & Ph. Lachenaud (2003) Etude de la Resistance du Cacaoyer aux Mirides : Classification des Grands Groupes de Cacaoyers en Fonction de Leur Niveau de Resistance ou Sensibilite. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU). In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
KKO (1993) Information from the KKO cocoa germplasm database. Information supplied on computer diskette by C. Cilas, CIRAD-CP, France.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Posnette, A.F. (1945) Incompatibility in Amazon cacao. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 22: pp. 184-187.